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New Sun Beam Educational Society®

Colonel Younus Road Hussain Abad Hazara Town, Quetta Pakistan

English Grammar Definitions

Verb

Verb:

            It is a word which shows the action, state or possession of the subject of the sentence.

Predicate:

            A part of a sentence which gives information about subject is called predicate.

Complement:

            A word that tells something about the subject or object of the sentence is called complement.

Subject Complement:

            A complement that tells something about the subject of the sentence is called subjective complement.

Objective Complement:

            A complement that tells something about the object of the sentence is called objective complement.

Tense:

            Tense is a form of a verb that shows the time, state or possession of the subject of the sentence which is expressed by the verb of the sentence.

Infinitive Marker:

            When "to" comes before a verb in a sentence is called called infinitive marker.

            Note: If "to" comes before a noun in a sentence is called preposition.

Redundancy:

            To use the synonym of a word repeatedly in a sentence is called redundancy.

            Note: Redundancy is considered grammatically wrong.

Language:

                         Language is the source of communicating ideas or thoughts.

Grammar:

            It is the rule and regulation of a language to tell us how to put words into sentence when we read, write or speak about or the systematic

            arrangement of the words into sentence is called “Grammar”.

Alphabet:

            A set of letters or symbols in a fixed order used for writing a language is called Alphabet.

Letter:

            The letters are the individual characters that are used to represent the sounds in a written form, either individually or in combination with other letters.

Vowel:

            A letter sound in which the mouth is open and the tongue is not touching the top of mouth and teeth and does not stop the flow of air being breathed

           out through the mouth.

Consonant:

            A letter sound by completely or partly stopping the flow of air being breathed out through the mouth (consonant block the flow of air) or a letter

            of the alphabet that represents a sound a consonant sound is called “consonant”.

Word:

            A group of letters which has one or more than one vowel letter and gives a meaning is called “word”.

Syllable:

            Divided unit or part of a word according to vowel sound is called “syllable”.

Sentence:

            A group of words which has a subject and a predicate and gives clear and complete meaning is called “sentence”.

Subject:

            A noun, noun phrase or pronoun indicating a person, place, an animal, an object, substance, state, event, imagination, quality, profession, feeling

            and thing which is the doer of an action (verb) or which something is stated about is called “subject”.

Subject-word or simple subject:

         When the subject of a sentence consists of several words, there is always one word which is more important than the rest of other words that is called                              “subject-word or simple subject”.

Notional subject:

            A term used to refer to a subject which is placed towards the end of a clause, and which is represented by an anticipatory subject (it or there) at the beginning of the clause.

Anticipatory subject:

            A word – it or there – which occurs in subject position. It carries little or no independent meaning, and points forward to the notional subject which is placed later in the sentence for reasons of end weight or emphasis.

Predicate:

            A part of a sentence which has a verb or verbs that gives information about the subject of the sentence is called “predicate”.

E.O.P (Extension of Predicate)

            The words which give more information about the subject or which extend the predicate is called “extension of predicate”.

Object:

            A noun, noun phrase of pronoun which refers to a person, an animal or thing which is affected by the action of the verb or which an action is done

to is called “object”.

Direct object:

            The direct object of a verb is directly created, affected or altered by the action of a verb, or appreciated or sensed by the subject of the verb.

Indirect object:

            The indirect object of a verb is not directly affected by the action, but can either receive the direct object or have the action done for them.

Anticipatory object:

            A word -if- which occurs in object position. It carries no independent meaning, but points forward to the notional direct object which is placed later

            in the sentence.

Cognate object:

            An object which has its own verb in a sentence is called “cognate object”. (E.g. Ali locked the .)

Complement:

            Complement is a word that tells something about subject or object of the sentence.

Verb:

            Verb is a word that shows an action, status or possession of a person, animal or thing.

Helping verb:

            Helping verbs are like (is/are/am/was/were etc) which are used before main verb to help and make a meaningful sentence.

Modal auxiliary verb:

            Modal auxiliary verbs are like (can, could, may, might, will, must etc) which are used with another verb to show possibility, ability, permission, order, request, compulsion and obligation.

Modality:

            A type of meaning, involving the affirmation of possibility, impossibility, necessity or contingency which entails an element of non-fact (often future reference) or uncertainly (about states of affairs in the present or the past)

Types of modality:

            1: Root modality           2: Epistemic modality

Root modality:

            The use of modal auxiliary verb to express subject’s readiness, obligation, permission or ability to do something.

Epistemic modality:

            The use of modal auxiliary verb to express the speaker’s judgment as whether or not something is true. Epistemic modality expresses strong possibility (e.g. must) or weak possibility (e.g. might)

Noun:

            A word used to refer to person, place, animal, object, substance, state, event, imagination, quality, profession, abstract ideas, phenomena, feeling and thing is called noun.

What does noun have?

            Noun has case, number and gender.

Adjective:

            Adjective is a word which shows the quality, quantity, number, kind and color of noun and pronoun.

Gradable adjective:

            A gradable adjective can be compared, or it can occur with intensifier indicating that whatever quality the adjective refers to can be viewed in relative terms, as a scale.

Non-gradable adjective:

            Non-gradable adjectives refer to qualities and properties which are seen as absolute. It cannot be compared.

Adverb:

            Adverb is a word that adds more information about place, time, manner, cause or degree to a verb, an adjective, a phrase or another adverb.

Adverbial particle:

            An adverb which is used after a verb to show position or direction of movement is called “adverbial particle”.

Pronoun:

            A word which is used in place of noun or indicates towards noun is called “pronoun”.

Case:

            The form of a noun, an adjective, a determiner or a pronoun that shows its relationship to another word is called “case”.

How many cases are there?

            There are five cases (1. Nominative       2. Accusative           3. Genitive              4. Dative          5. Vocative)

Conjunction:

            A word that connects two sentences, phrases, clauses or words is called “conjunction”.

Preposition:

            A word or words used before noun or pronoun to show place, time, position, direction or method is called “preposition”.

Punctuation:

            A mark or sign used in writing to divide sentences, clauses, words and phrases is called “punctuation”.

Do-insertion or Do-periphrasis:

            In forming negative, interrogative, negative interrogative sentences, English puts a form of do in a sentence if there is no other auxiliary in the sentence. Do-insertion also occurs in declarative sentences to mark special emphasis. Yes it needs do-insertion because it does not have any other auxiliary verb.

Intensifier:

            An adverb which functions as a modifier in an adjective phrase or adverb phrase is called “intensifier”.

Modifier:

            A modifier is a part of the phrase which ascribes a property to the end of the phrase and that that cannot be taken away. (The ‘head’ of a noun

            phrase is a noun or pronoun, the ‘head’ of a verb phrase is verb).

Phrase:

            A group of words which makes sense but not complete sense is called “phrase”.

Kinds of phrase:

                   1. Noun phrase       2. Adjective phrase        3. Adverb phrase          4. Verb phrase              5. Prepositional phrase

             6. Determiner phrase

Determiner:

            A class of function words which occur at the beginning of noun phrases. Determiners say something about such things as number, definiteness,

            proximity and ownership.

Infinitive:

            The base form of the verb or an uninflected form of a verb is called “infinitive”.

Infinitive marker:

            The word ‘to’ (in front of a verb in its base form) is called “infinitive marker”.

Bare infinitive:

            Infinitive without the infinitive marker ‘to’ is called “bare infinitive”.

Full infinitive:

            Infinitive with the infinitive marker ‘to’ is called “full infinitive”.

Split infinitive:

            An infinitive with an adverb between the infinitive marker ‘to’ and the verb is called “split infinitive”.

Base form:

            An uninflected form of a word is called ‘base form’. (The base form of a noun is its singular form, while the base form of verbs is the (bare) infinitive,

             and of adjectives and adverbs, the positive form).

Inflection:

            A change in the form of the verb, especially the ending, according to its grammatical function in a sentence is called “inflection”. (if a word inflects, its                   ending or ending or spelling changes according to its grammatical function in a sentence).

Metaphor:

            A metaphor is a word or phrase that describes one thing being used to describe another.

Smile:

            A smile is a comparison between two different things, designed to create an unusual, interesting, emotional or other effect (words such as ‘like’ or ‘as…….as).

Redundancy:

            To use the synonym of a word in a sentence is called “redundancy”. (Redundancy is considered wrong grammatically).

Affix:

            A letter or group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to change the meaning is called “affix”.

Absolute degree of comparative and superlative adjective:

            When comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives are used in which there is no comparison in a sentence is called “absolute degree”.

Clause:

            A group of words which has a subject and a predicate and forms a sentence or part of a sentence is called “clause”.

Main clause:

            A group of words which has a subject and a predicate but does not give clear meaning and can make a sentence by itself is called “main clause/ independent clause”.

Dependent clause:

            A group of words which has a subject and predicate, gives a clear and complete meaning and can make a sentence by itself is called “independent clause”.

Noun clause:

            A dependent clause which functions as a noun is called “noun clause”.

Adverb clause:

            A dependent clause which functions as an adverb is called “adverb clause”.

ING form:

Gerund:

            An ‘ING’ form that works as a noun is called “gerund”.

Participle:

            An ‘ING’ form that works as a verb, an adjective and as an adverb is called participle.